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This high likelihood translates into a very rapid evolutionary process. The evolution of antibiotic resistance of any previously susceptible bacterial colony to just about any antibiotic is usually realized within a very short period of sustained antibiotic exposure.The antibiotic age was ushered in with the accidental discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) in 1928.Proteins are composed of different combinations of amino acids assembled in chain-like molecules.Amino acids are primarily composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen.These dates are derived by measuring decay rates and extrapolating back in time which is very different than calibrating it to come out that way a priori.Now it could be that one may wish to object to the particular use of an uniformitarian assumption that is part of such an extrapolation but that would be a different complaint.The advantage of this technique over the conventional radiocarbon method is that it requires a far smaller sample size and can potentially provide dates going back to around 100,000 B. At present, however, AMS dates generally are for events less than organic molecules that are building blocks of proteins.There are at least 20 different kinds of amino acids in living things.
He is one example I have offered in the past to this exact comment above: That the earth is assumed to be billions of years old cannot be considered an a-priori assumption given that this this age for the earth has only been estimated in the last 100 years.
Indestructible grains, preservation in bogs and lake sediments allowed pollen experts to construct detailed sequences of past vegetation and climate.
Can yield environmental evidence as far back as 3mya`Based on observation that the annual growth rings of a few tree species vary in width according to differences in seasonal growing conditions (esp. Successful means of calibrating or correcting radiocarbon dates2.
Idea that something is older or younger relative to something else Expressed in terms of order.
Assignment of an age to a physical remain based on the association with other remains of known age.